Andrographis paniculata

Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees (Acanthaceae)

Syn : Justicia paniculata Burm. f.

English names: The great king of bitters, the creat. Sanskrit names: Bhunimba, Kirata.

Vernacular names: Ben: Kalmegh; Guj : Kariyatu; Hin: Kirayat; Kan: Nelabaru; Mar: Olikiryata; Tam and Tel: Nelavemu.

Trade names: Kalmegh, Kirayat.

Traditional use: Plant:. febrifuge, alterative, anthelmintic, anodyne, useful in debility, diabetes, consumption, influenza, bronchitis, itches and piles; in Bengal, household medicine known as 'Kalmegh', made from leaves, is given to the children suffering from stomach complaints.

HOEMOEPATHY: used for treatment of different ailments of head, mind, eyes, nose, mouth, tongue, throat, abdomen, stool, urine, fever and other modalities.

Modern use: Drug constitute stem, leaf and inflorescence: as a tonic and in the treatment of fevers, worms, dysentery and also beneficial to liver and digestive ailments; it is reported that it has some antityphoid and antibiotic activity; Decoction: used for sluggishness of liver and in jaundice.

Phytography : An erect herb with square stem, glabrous below, glandular hairy above; leaves linear, lanceolate, glabrous and distinctly pedicelled; flowers white or pale purple; capsules compressed transversely; seeds bony.

Phenology: Flowering and Fruiting: September-May.

Distribution: Throughout India in the plains and hills; Bangladesh, Pakistan, all South­ East Asian and SAARC countries.

Ecology and cultivation: Common in stony lines in forests and in wastelands. Culti­vated as an ornamental.

Chemical contents: Plant: kalmeghin, bitter principle andrographolide; bitterness is due to nonbasic principle.

Adulterants: It is used as adulterants for Chirata, and is a substitute for quinine.

Remark: Whole plant is bitter.


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