Gmelina arborea

Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Verbenaceae)

(2n = 36, 38)






Syn : Premna arborea Roth

English names: Cashmeri tree, Coomb teak, Malay bush beech, White teak. Sanskrit names: Ashveta, Bahdraparni, Gambhari, Gandhari, Kakodumbari, Kassmari, Katphala, Nandivriksha, Sharubhadra, Shriparni, Subhadra, Vataha, Vidarini.

Vernacular names: Asm : Gomari; Ben: Gamar, Gamari, Gambar; Guj : Shewan; Hin: Gamari, Gambhari, Jugani chukur, Khambheri; Kan : Kashmirimara, Kumbalamara, Shivani; Lcd: Kashmar daru; Mal: Kambil, Kumil, Kumilu, Kumpil; Mar: Shewan; Mun : Kasambar daru, Kasmar daru; Orn : Gambhair; Ori : Bhodroparni, Gambari; Pun: Gumhar; Sad: Gambhair; San: Kashmar daru; Tam: Gumudu-taku, Kattanam, Kumadi, Kumala maram, Perumkumbil, Umithekku; Tel: Gumar-tek, Gummadi.

Trade names: Gamar, Gamari, Gumhar.

Traditional use: MIKIR: Root: as blood purifier, Leaf: as carminative; BIRHORE : Leaf: in headache; SANTAL : in anasarca, asthma, bronchitis, cholera, colic pain, diarrhoea, dropsy, dyspepsia, epilepsy, fever, phthisis, rheumatism, small pox, sore, spleen complaints, syphilis, throat swelling, urticaria, as antidote to snake bite and some other poisons; MUNDA : Bark: to cure wounds; SORA (Orissa) : Root: in catarrh of bladder; Decoction of root: as tonic; Bark: in stomach disorder; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF ARAKU VALLEY (Andhra Pradesh) : Root: in malarial fever; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF GODAVARI (Andhra Pradesh) : Bark-paste: on bone fracture, Leaf: in cough, gonorrhoea; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF DEHRA DUN (Uttar Pradesh): Leaf-paste: on wounds.

ATHARVAVEDA : blood purifier; CHARAKA SAMHITA : useful in vomiting, dropsy and in burning sensation of the body; SUSHRUTA SAMHITA : energiser like grape, can be used as substitute of sweet date palm; BHAVAPRAKASHA : it is bitter, appetiser, brain tonic, energiser, digestive, subdues vata and kapha, removes dropsy, alleviates thirst, useful in colic pain, burning sensation of body, fever, urinary complaints, wastage; RAJANIGHANTU : it is pungent, bitter, heavy (guru), thermogenic, removes oedema, phlegm, tridosha, burning sensation, fever, thirst, poisons; DHANVANTARINIGHANTU : bitter, thermogenic, removes bleeding tendency, tridosha, fatigue, burning sensation of body, fever, thirst; KAIYAOEVANIGHANTU : it is sweet, bitter, thermogenic, heavy, appetiser, digestive, brain tonic, removes dropsy, giddiness, colic pain, toxins, burning sensation of body, fever, alleviates thirst; flowers sweet, cooling, bitter, astringent, beneficial for the diseases caused by pitta and kapha; fruits unctuous, heavy, cooling, astringent, brain tonic, cardiotonic, removes giddiness, acidity, urinary troubles, burning sensation of body, wounds, wastage and troubles caused by vata; RAJAVALLABHAM: fruits seizing, bitter, sweet, heavy, cooling, good for hair, brain, removes burning sensation of body and diseases caused by pitta; roots are too hot; NIGHANTU RATNAKARAM: it is pungent, bitter, hot, astringent, heavy, sweet, appetiser, digestive, brain tonic, cardiotonic, removes thirst, colic pain, oedema, phlegm, toxins, burning sensation of body, fever, impurities of blood, piles, giddiness; fruits aphrodisiac, heavy, increases semen, cooling, unctuous, increases intelligence, removes urinary troubles, impurities of blood, thirst, burning sensation of body, good for urticaria, consumption, wounds, leucorrhoea.

AYURVEDA : Root: acrid, bitter, anthelmintic, galactogogue, laxative, stomachic, tonic, useful in burning sensation, dyspepsia, fever, haemorrhoids, hallucination, hyperdisia and stomachalgia; Bark: bitter, tonic, stomachic, useful in dyspepsia, fever; Leaf-paste: useful in cephalalgia, Leaf-extract: good wash for foul ulcer; Flower: acrid, astringent, bitter, refrigerant, sweet, useful in skin diseases including leprosy; Fruits: acrid, alterant, aphrodisiac, astringent, bitter, diuretic, refrigerant, sour, sweet, tonic, trichogenous, useful in anaemia, blood dysentery, constipation, leprosy, leucorrhoea, malnutrition of child and embryo, strangury and wounds.

Modern use: 50% EtOH extract of bark (and also of stem) : antiviral, hypoglycaemic. Phytography : Unarmed deciduous tree, 15-20 m in height; stem-bark whitish grey, lenticellate, young branches covered with fine white soft hairs; leaves .opposite, simple, petioles ±7.5 cm long, lamina broadly ovate, usually 22.5 by 15.0 cm, more or less acuminate, glabrous above but stellately hairy beneath; panicles terminal, often 30 cm long, many-flowered; flowers bucciniform, brownish yellow, ±3.7 cm long, tomentose at least when young; drupes ±1.8 cm 1000g, fleshy, ovoid, orange-yellow when ripe; seeds hard, oblong.

Phenology: Flowering: January-April; Fruiting: May-June. Distribution: Throughout India; Bangladesh (Chittagong), Sri Lanka. Ecology and cultivation: Grows in moist deciduous forests; wild.

Chemical contents: Root: ceryl alcohol, gmelofuran, gmelinol, hentriacontanol-I, n-octacosanol, β-sitosterol, sesquiterpene; Stem: arboreok, bromoisoarboreol, cluytyl ferulate, gmelanone, gmelinol, gummidiol, lignans, lignan hemiacetal, n-hentriacontanol-I, n-octacosanol, β-sitosterol; Leaf: apigenin, hentriacontanol, luteoHn, quercetin, quercetogenin, β-sitosterol.

Remarks: Ethnic communities of India use the plant in the treatment of rinderpest of cattle.

. In Sri Lanka, it is used in skeletal fracture.

It is one of the best and most reliable timber-yielding trees of India. The plant is a fast grower.

2 comments:

Banglar Magi said...

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Yatika Dhingra said...

Perfect blog, Just what I was looking for. Thank you!
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