Ficus racemosa

Ficus racemosa L. (Moraceae)

(2n = 22, 26)







Syn : Ficus glomerata Roxb.

English names: Cluster fig, Country fig, Gular fig.

Sanskrit names: Apushpaphalasambandha, Audumbaram, Brahmavriksha, Haritaksha, Hemadugdha, Shetavalkala, Udumbara, Yajnaphala.

Vernacular names: Asm : Dimoree; Ben: Dumur, Jajna-dumur, Jaya dumur; Guj : Gudar, Umar, Umbara; Hin: Gulav, Umar; Kan: Atti; Mal: Atti, Athimaram; Man: Heibong; Mar: Umbar(a); Mun : Loa daru; Orn : Dumbari, Ori : Dimburi; Sad: Dumbair; San: Dumbari-hesa, Loa-dare; Tam: Atti, Aththi; Tel: Bodda, Paidi, Udumbaramu.

Trade name: Common fig.

Traditional use: MANIPURI : (i) Root-extract: in diabetes, dysentery; (ii) Latex: on boils; (Hi) Fruit: in pulmonary diseases; SANTAL : (i) Bark-juice: on boils, in adenitis axillaris, epidydimitis, hydrocele, orchitis; (ii) Latex: on adenitis, muscular pain, pimps, scabies; (iii) Juice of pith: in menorrahgia, spermatorrhoea; (iv) Warts on leaves: in small pOX; (v) Leaf gall (decoction) : for washing septic wounds; BHOXA : Latex: in piles; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF NORTHERN INDIA: (i) Latex: in piles, pulmonary diseases; (ii) Bark and Fruit (together) : in urinary complaints; (iii) Fruit: as carminative; GARHWALI: (i) Root: in dysentery; (ii) Bark: as astringent; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF MOUNT ABU (Rajasthan) : Leaf: in pneumonia; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF CHANDRAPURA (Maharashtra) : Leaf: in bronchitis; ETHNIC COMMUNITIESOFKHEDTALUKA(Maharashtra): (i) Barkand Fruit(together): in leprosy, urinary complaints; (ii) Fruit: in diabetes; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF CHHINDWARA (Madhya Pradesh) : (i) Latex: in diarrhoea; (ii) Fruit: as carminative; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF BANDA (Madhya Pradesh) : Latex: in dysentery, skin cracks in heels and lips.

RIGVEDA : cures piles, internal wounds, removes impurities from blood, worms from alimentary canal; YAJURVEDA : bark kills worms; ATHARVAVEDA: useful in skin diseases, including leprosy, sinus, oedema, impurities of blood and in piles; MADANADINIGHANTU : useful in antifertility, pimples and wounds; BHAVAPRAKASHA : useful in treatment of pimples and wounds; DHANVANTARINIGHANTU : removes worms, cures thrombophlebitis, syncope, burning sensation and unusual thirst; KAIYADEVANIGHANTU : astringent, sweet and heavy, cures pimples and wounds, diseases caused by deranged phlegm and deranged bile; fruits are tasteful, invigorating, astringent, cooling, cardiac tonic, useful in urinary diseases, bile disorders, menstrual disorders. .

AYURVEDA: Latex: external application useful in cuts, insect bites, boils, bruises, swellings, while internal application is beneficial in haemoptysis, bleeding piles and menstrual problems.

SIDDHA : (i) Bark: used to prepare the drug atti pattai, (ii) Latex: for atti pal, and (Hi) Leaf: an ingredient of atti ilai.

Modern use: Stem-bark (50% EtOH extract) : anti-inflammatory, anti protozoal, hypoglycaemic; Leaf-powder: useful in bilious affections; Leaf-gall: beneficial in small pox.

Phytography : Spreading laticiferous tree, 9.0-12.2 m tall, bark reddish grey, smooth; leaves alternate, stipules ovate-Ianceolate, pubescent, 1.25-2.5 cm long, petioles 2.5-5.0 cm long, lamina simple membranous, ovate to obovate-oblong or lanceolate, 10-18 cm long, dark green, glabrous or softly pubescent above while lower surface pubescent or glabrous; fruits borne in clusters on the main trunk and leafless short branches, subglobose or pyriform, 2.5-5.0 cm in diameter, red when ripe.

Phenology: Flowering: Spring; Fruiting: Rainy season.

Distribution: Throughout India; Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.

Ecology and cultivation: Tropical plant; grows on the banks of streams, sides of ravines, on rocky slopes, up to 1500 m; wild.

Chemical contents: Bark: ceryl behenati gluanol-OAc, lupeol and its α-OAc, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol; Leaf: β-amyrin, β-sitosterol, gluanol-OAc; Fruit: lupeol-OAc, gluanol-OAc, glucose, hentriacontane, β-sitosterol, a sterol, ester of taraxasterol, tiglic acid.

Remarks: Some ethnic communities of Rajasthan use leaves as a galactogogue for cattle. Rural folks of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa use bark in treatment of domestic animals. Unripe fruits are eaten as a vegetable by most of the Indians, while ripe fruits are consumed by Bhoxas, Garhwalis, tribes of North-East India, hill people of Maharashtra, tribes of eastern Rajasthan, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh (Bastar).

Tribes of Chhindwara (Madhya Pradesh) use young stem as toothbrush.

This tree is considered as a constituent of the sacred panchavata and as kalpataru by the Hindus. They keep a piece of stem of this plant, as a part of rite, in the labour room and also use the wood as samidh (sacrificial wood) in all yajnas.

The wood is also used by the Hindus to make effigy if the corpse is lost or not available.

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